Minggu, 20 Maret 2011

Pemerintah Diminta Kembangkan Model Bank Tanah


JAKARTA - Pemerintah perlu mengembangkan model bank tanah untuk menjamin ketersediaan lahan pembangunan perumahan rakyat. Model ini bertujuan untuk membantu pemerintah daerah (pemda) dalam menyelesaikan kekurang (backlog) perumahan rakyat.

Menurut Peneliti dari Kelompok Keahlian Perumahan dan Permukiman (KKPP) ITB Jehansyah Siregar, penyediaan bank tanah bisa dilakukan lewat dua metode, yaitu skala besar untuk pengembangan kawasan terpadu serta skala menengah dan kecil guna menciptakan kawasan-kawasan permukiman baru.
"Pemerintah pusat perlu segera memiliki model bank tanah skala besar melalui badan usaha milik negara (BUMN), tugas ini bisa dilaksanakan Perumnas maupun melalui pendirian BUMN, di kota-kota metropolitan Tanah Air," ujar dia kepada Investor Daily, belum lama ini.

Kota metropolitan yang dimaksud seperti Jakarta, Surabaya, Bandung, Medan, Semarang, Palembang,
Makassar dan Banjarmasin yang dikembangkan melalui mekanisme pengembangan kawasan terpadu berskala besar. Sedangkan bank tanah skala menengah dan kecil di kawasan pusat perkotaan pemerintah perlu segera membuat model pengelolaan redevelopment seperti Urban Rede-velopment Authority (URA) di Singapura dan di Jepang.

"Umumnya pengadaan tanah skala besar oleh BUMN di negara-negara tersebut lewat mekanisme prioritisasi alih hak pengelolaan tanah oleh BUMN-BUMN, dari tanah perkebunan atau pertanian menjadi tanah permukiman dan perkotaan," ujarnya.

Saat ini, tambah dia, penyediaan lahan pengembangan perumahan belum diterapkan di Indonesia. Malah ada kecenderungan beberapa pihak yang menempatkan pemda sebagai pihak yang paling bertanggung jawab dalam pengadaan tanah untuk penyediaan rumah. Bahkan, hal ini dijadikan sebagai tolok ukur komitmen pemda untuk berkontri-busi dalam pembangunan perumahan rakyat.

"Jika ada pandangan seperti itu, tidak tepat Semua tingkatan pemerintahan memiliki kapasitas dan kewenangan yang sama terhadap tanah perumahan rakyat. Bahkan, sebenarnya pemerintah pusat melalui BUMN-BUMN memiliki tanah yang lebih banyak. Apalagi jika memasukkan tanah-tanah BUMN perkebunan, kehutanan dan pertanian yang sudah masanya dialihkan fungsinya," papar dia.

Jehansyah mengakui urusan pengadaan tanah untuk perumahan rakyat dipandang sulit dan mahal, karena terhambat beragam kendala dan biaya tinggi untuk pembebasan tanah maupun perizinan. Namun, semua kendala ini akan hilang jika dikembangkan melalui mekanisme perumahan publik yang terencana.
"Untuk itu. pemerintah perlu segera mengembangkan bank-bank tanah melalui mekanisme perumahan publik. Mekanisme housingdelivery inilah yang sebenarnya harus dijamin dalam Undang-Undang Perumahan dan Kawasan Permukiman (UU PKP)," katanya.

Kalangan pengembang sebelumnya menyebutkan pembangunan perumahan rakyat terkendala oleh minimnya ketidaktersediaan lahan. Pengembang khawatir program rumah murah sulit berjalan akibat minimnya pasokan lahan. Untuk itu, pengembang meminta ada intervensi pemerintah dalam program pembangunan rumah untuk rakyat berupa penjaminan ketersediaan lahan dan infrastruktur.

Ketua Umum DPP Asosiasi Pengembang Perumahan dan Permukiman Seluruh Indonesia (Apersi) Eddy Ganefo mengungkapkan, program rumah murah tidak akan berjalan, apabila pemerintah dan pengembang tidak bekerja sama menyediakan hunian bagi masyarakat "Pengembang dan pemerintah punya kemampuan terbatas. Kalau sendiri-sendiri tentu tidak akan bisa," katanya, (ean)


http://bataviase.co.id/node/593293



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Govt Asked to Form Land Bank Institution to Evade Speculator Actions


JAKARTA (IFT) - The government is asked to strengthen their land banking to develop housing in line with the increasingly expensive land price in urban areas due to land speculators.

In several countries, agencies that manage land banks are tasked with observing land price movement strictly and systematically, mainly those due to actions of the speculators. The agencies are also tasked with organizing land usage to conform with the local layout plan, and also serves as mediator in acquiring public land.

“Management of land banks have to involve the government, including the regional government, because it will be hard to implement gathering and managing land policy without authorization and budget from the government,” said Lukman Purnomosidi, ex-Chair of Central Executive Council of the Indonesian Real Estate Association, in Jakarta, Thursday.

For instance, Singapore has long conducted land reservations efforts for housing their population. Land banking in Singapore is organized by an agency that specifically manages housing and is successful in implementing the housing construction policy, mainly to the middle to low income population.

He said that so far, land acquisition for housing development is conducted through market mechanism. The condition made land price in urban areas skyrocket, especially if it is known that the area will be developed as a property project. For middle class housing, such as apartments, it might not be much of a problem, but for middle-low class housing, it can be a hassle. Currently the majority of large middle-low class housing projects are progressing further away to the outskirts of Jakarta.

“Cost percentage for land reached 15-20 percent of the total housing production cost. Therefore, efforts to gather and manage land for housing in large scale, are very pressing to make the house price more affordable,” he said.

Jehansyah Siregar, Residential Expert of the Bandung Institute of Technology, said that the government must quickly develop  land banks through the public housing mechanism. The housing delivery mechanism is supposedly guaranteed and conducted by the government as regulated in the Law of Housing and Residential Area.

“Though in article 105 of the Law, it is said that the responsibility of land bank availability is at the hands of the regional government, the mechanism should be clarified,” he said, Thursday.
In Japan and Korea, land acquisition is developed by public companies, respectively by URA and KNHC, which are similar to Perumnas in Indonesia. Large scale land acquisitions are usually conducted through the government’s land management rights transfer. In Japan, after receiving the large scale land management right, the URA then collaborates with Japan Railway (Railway SOE) to open rail access to the land location that is going to be converted into a residential area. “The public interest and the mission of developing quality residential area cannot be handed over to the private sector, because it is the state’s job,” said Jehansyah.

From observing countries that are successful in developing land banks, the central government must possess a large scale model of a land bank that is managed by a State Owned Enterprises (SOE), at least in several main metropolitan cities such as Jakarta, Surabaya, Bandung, Medan, Semarang, Palembang, Makassar and Banjarmasin.

Himawan Arief Sugoto, President Director of the Perumnas Public Company, said that they are ready should they be given the authority to manage land banks for housing development specifically for the low-income population. Currently, the developer is prioritizing expansion and strengthening the organizational structure. Suggestions on changing the institutional role of Perumnas has been done, but is waiting for the government’s approval. Other than the land bank institution, he said, there is also a need to assign a  financial institution that will fund the land acquisition with long-term loans with a soft interest rate.


http://en.indonesiafinancetoday.com/read/3350/contact

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